That is an interesting page; Tosca has had a rough life. Thanks for the link, Vicki. Those fainting women in the audience, arrgh. Great way to get a little attention. It explains why the early movie-makers were uneasy about including close-ups (fear that the disembodied heads would cause pregnant ladies in the audience to faint). Funny priorities: suicide is not acceptable but being shot by a row of men with rifles is okay.

I don't think Puccini worried overmuch about accuracy of detail. Butterfly shows a woman committing hara-kiri, Pinkerton's battleship is the Abraham Lincoln (battleships are named after states, not presidents), etc. Those details could have come from Belasco's play.

Then there's the problem of the fireflies. Andrew, do you have access to the score of Butterfly? Do the stage directions say anything about fireflies during the duet that ends Act I?